Friday, 8 December 2017

Body temperature dysregulation

Title

Can body temperature dysregulation explain the co-occurrence between overweight/obesity, sleep impairment, late-night eating, and a sedentary lifestyle?

Abstract 

Purpose. Overweight/obesity, sleep disturbance, night eating, and a sedentary lifestyle are common co-occurring problems. There is a tendency for them to co-occur together more often than they occur alone. In some cases, there is clarity as to the time course and evolution of the phenomena. However, specific mechanism(s) that are proposed to explain a single co-occurrence cannot fully explain the more generalized tendency to develop concurrent symptoms and/or disorders after developing one of the phenomena. Nor is there a clinical theory with any utility in explaining the development of co-occurring symptoms, disorders and behaviour and the mechanism(s) by which they occur. Thus, we propose a specific mechanism—dysregulation of core body temperature (CBT) that interferes with sleep onset—to explain the development of the concurrences.

Methods. A detailed review of the literature related to CBT and the phenomena that can alter CBT or are altered by CBT is provided.

Results. Overweight/obesity, sleep disturbance and certain behaviour (e.g. late-night eating, sedentarism) were linked to elevated CBT, especially an elevated nocturnal CBT. A number of existing therapies including drugs (e.g. antidepressants), behavioural therapies (e.g. sleep restriction therapy) and bright light therapy can also reduce CBT.

Conclusions. An elevation in nocturnal CBT that interferes with sleep onset can parsimoniously explain the development and perpetuation of common co-occurring symptoms, disorders and behaviour including overweight/obesity, sleep disturbance, late-night eating, and sedentarism. Nonetheless, a significant correlation between CBT and the above symptoms, disorders and behaviour does not necessarily imply causation. Thus, statistical and methodological issues of relevance to this enquiry are discussed including the likely presence of autocorrelation.

Cite

Brown, R. F., Thorsteinsson, E. B., Smithson, M., Birmingham, C. L., Aljarallah, H., & Nolan, C. (2017). Can body temperature dysregulation explain the co-occurrence between overweight/obesity, sleep impairment, late-night eating, and a sedentary lifestyle? Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 22, 599-608. doi:10.1007/s40519-017-0439-0

Link

https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-017-0439-0

Thursday, 9 November 2017

Sexual orientation among Icelandic year 10 adolescents

Title

Sexual orientation among Icelandic year 10 adolescents: Changes in health and life satisfaction from 2006 to 2014

Abstract 

Background: Minority sexual orientation may add additional stresses to the period of adolescence thus affecting mental health and wellbeing.

Method: The whole population of year 10 students in 2006, 2010, and 2014 in Iceland were surveyed as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. About 3.1%, 3.6%, and 4.4% were identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) in 2006, 2010, and 2014, respectively. Given the sampling proportions, the results reflect parameters (population values) rather than statistics (sample values).

Results: LGB adolescents were worse off across most of the outcome variables across the three surveys as compared with adolescents of unknown sexual orientation (USO). However, the gap between LGB and USO adolescents appears to be closing, at least for the 2010 to 2014 change, suggesting that outcomes for LGB adolescents have improved compared to four years earlier. Social support, liking school and one’s classmates, being bullied, and physical and mental health all seem to play an important part in life satisfaction and general wellbeing.

Conclusion: While advances have been made for LGB adolescents, gaps between LGB and USO adolescents still exist and need to be closed through evidence-based school and society-wide programs.

Cite

Thorsteinsson, E. B., Loi, N., Sveinbjornsdottir, S., & Arnarsson, A. (2017). Sexual orientation among Icelandic year 10 adolescents: Changes in health and life satisfaction from 2006 to 2014. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 58, 530-540. doi:10.1111/sjop.12402

Link

http://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12402 

Tuesday, 24 October 2017

The quality of life of maternal caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes

Title

Self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, and social support: The quality of life of maternal caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes

Abstract 

Objectives. To examine maternal functioning and wellbeing as important aspects of a family’s adaptation to chronic paediatric conditions, in particular, children with diabetes.

Method. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference between the perceived quality of life of mothers of children with diabetes (n = 63) and mothers of children without diabetes (n = 114). The study also examined the role of self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, number of social support providers, and satisfaction with social support in predicting quality of life.

Results. Mothers who had a child with diabetes had lower quality of life measured by general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health than mothers that did not have a child with diabetes. Self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, and social support were significant predictors of quality of life (mental health domain).

Conclusion. In order to enhance their psychological wellbeing, mothers of children with diabetes require adequate psychosocial support. Other implications for research and potential interventions are discussed.

Cite

Thorsteinsson, E. B., Loi, N. M., & Rayner, K. (2017). Self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, and social support: The quality of life of maternal caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes. PeerJ, 5, e3961. doi:10.7717/peerj.3961

Link

https://peerj.com/articles/3961/?td=bl

Friday, 9 June 2017

Perfect imperfections: Locus of control, perfectionism and postpartum depression

Title

Perfect imperfections: Locus of control, perfectionism and postpartum depression

Abstract

We examined whether locus of control (LOC) moderates the apparent relationship between perfectionism and postpartum depression (PPD). It was predicted that external LOC would moderate the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and PPD, and socially prescribed perfectionism and PPD. A sample of 243 women completed an online self-report questionnaire assessing perfectionism, LOC, and PPD. Self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism were significantly associated with PPD. Increased personal loci of control (i.e., low external LOC and high internal LOC) moderated (strengthened) the relationship between perfectionism and PPD. LOC may be an important concept and one of the underlying factors at work in the perfectionism–PPD relationship. This outcome may be attributed to the self-directed nature of self-oriented perfectionists.

Link

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244017710689

Cite

Jackman, L., Thorsteinsson, E. B., & McNeil, D. (2017). Perfect imperfections: Locus of control, perfectionism and postpartum depression. SAGE Open, 7, 1-8. doi:10.1177/2158244017710689

Wednesday, 17 May 2017

Internet addiction, psychological distress, and coping responses

Title

Internet addiction, psychological distress, and coping responses among adolescents and adults

Abstract

As Internet use grows so do the benefits and also the risks. Thus, it is important to identify when individuals’ Internet use is problematic. In the present study 449 participants aged from 16 to 71 years of age were sourced from a wide range of English speaking Internet forums including social media, and self-help groups. Of these, 68.9% were classified as non-problematic users, 24.4% as problematic users, and 6.7% as addictive Internet users. High use of discussion forums, high rumination levels, and low levels of self-care were the main contributing factors to Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents. For adults, though, IA was mainly predicted through engagement in online video gaming and sexual activity, low email use, as well as high anxiety and high avoidant coping. Problematic Internet users scored higher on emotion and avoidance coping responses in adults and higher on rumination and lower on self-care in adolescents. Avoidance coping responses mediated the relationship between psychological distress and Internet addiction. These findings may assist clinicians with designing interventions to target different factors associated with Internet addiction.

Link

http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/pdf/10.1089/cyber.2016.0669

Cite

McNicol, M. L., & Thorsteinsson, E. B. (2017). Internet addiction, psychological distress, and coping responses among adolescents and adults. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 20, 296-304. doi:10.1089/cyber.2016.0669

Neighborhood predictors of life domain satisfaction

Title

Neighborhood predictors of life domain satisfaction and subjective wellbeing in rural and urban groups: Implications for health policy and practice

Abstract

This research investigates the extent to which satisfaction with thirteen aspects of neighborhood predicts the life domain satisfaction and subjective wellbeing (SWB) of rural (n = 408) and urban (n = 1,690) groups as measured by the seven life domains of the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) using Australian data. Open space and sharing and borrowing between neighbors were found to predict life domain satisfaction for rural respondents but not urban respondents. On the other hand, leisure facilities predict domain satisfaction for urban but not rural respondents, while trust between neighbors predicts a greater number of domains for urban respondents. Greater awareness of neighborhood predictors unique to rural or urban groups could help target public health policy aimed at maintaining SWB is these populations.

Links


Cite

Kennedy, W., & Thorsteinsson, E. B. (2017). Neighborhood predictors of life domain satisfaction and subjective wellbeing in rural and urban groups: Implications for health policy and practice. The International Journal of Health, Wellness, and Society, 7, 83-97. 

Thursday, 23 March 2017

Attributions toward injury in a military physical training environment

Title

Attributions toward injury in a military physical training environment

Abstract

The effects of military culture on causal attributions in a physical training environment were examined. The participants were male Australian Defense Force (ADF) members: 49 physical training instructors (mean age = 32.21 years) and 63 physical training participants (mean age = 34.22 years). Participants filled out a questionnaire describing 3 injury scenarios, each with a different severity of injury. The participants assigned causal attributes on 4 dimensions: lack of ability, environmental condition, lack of effort, and bad luck. There were main effects for scenario (low, moderate, and high severity of injury) and group (physical training instructors and injured trainee). Military culture may therefore encourage attributions that are internal and unstable. The results demonstrate the significant effect of military context on "normal" attribution biases. Therefore when seeking explanation of causation, there is a need to be aware of the tendency for those involved to distort attributions and how these distortions may be affected by a military context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Links 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/mil0000158
http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=search.displayrecord&uid=2017-05889-001
http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=browsePA.ofp&jcode=mil

Cite 

Thorsteinsson, E. B., & Loi, N. M. (2017 online first). Attributions toward injury in a military physical training environment. Military Psychology doi:10.1037/mil0000158


Exploring poor sleep, mental health, and help-seeking intention in University students

Title

Exploring poor sleep, mental health, and help-seeking intention in University students

Abstract 

University students experience common mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, and stress along with poor-sleep quality. This study explores the relationships between these concepts and help-seeking intention in a general Australian university student population. The primary aim was to examine the moderating effects of sleep quality on help-seeking intention for common mental health problems. The secondary aim was to examine sex differences in help-seeking behaviour. Method: University students, between 18 and 55 years of age ( M = 30.18, SD = 11.37, N = 117) of which 98 were female, completed an on-line survey assessing help-seeking intentions, common mental health problems, and sleep quality. Results: High levels of depression, anxiety, and stress were signi fi cantly associated with decreased sleep quality or decreased help-seeking intention. A multiple regression analysis predicted that students were more likely to report intention to seek help if they had lower scores of depression, but higher scores of stress. Help-seeking intention levels were lower for males than females. Poor-sleep quality was not found to be a moderator of help-seeking intention. Conclusion: Although the proposed moderation effect of poor-sleep quality on the relationship between common mental health problems and help-seeking intention was not supported, the study advanced our knowledge of university students ’ low intention to seek help, despite high scores of poor-sleep quality. Implications for on-campus interventions and raising awareness among students about these issues are discussed.

Link 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajpy.12160


Cite

Zochil, M. L., & Thorsteinsson, E. B. (2017). Exploring poor sleep, mental health, and help-seeking intention in University students. Australian Journal of Psychology. doi:10.1111/ajpy.12160

Body temperature dysregulation

Title Can body temperature dysregulation explain the co-occurrence between overweight/obesity, sleep impairment, late-night eating, and ...